This is my plan drawing of the Temple in Jerusalem, about the time of Jesus (30 AD).
The temple building itself is the tall, pale building in the centre of the picture. The temple complex is the collection of dark brown buildings that surround the pale temple. Beyond that is a wide paved area which is the courtyard of the Gentiles. This was where the money changing, dove & sacrificial animal selling occurred, which Jesus so strongly objected to. Around the edge of the courtyard of the Gentiles were colonnades (a row of evenly spaced columns supporting a roof, an entablature, or arches).
There were several entrances to the temple enclosure, on all 4 sides.
My scene shows us the temple mount from the south west corner.